Jean piaget theory

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Included among these is the symptom, night sweats. Patients' concerns about night sweats are fairly common. Ely2 identified questions about the cause of night sweats as among the most frequent questions posed by patients for which he could find no evidence-based answer.

In an effort to clarify what is currently known about night sweats, the authors undertook a systematic review of the medical literature. We searched the Medline database jean piaget theory Technologies) from 1966 through 2011 for all articles containing the Medical Subject Heading sweating combined with the text phrase night, which yielded 84 citations before applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

We also searched using the text phrases night sweats and nocturnal diaphoresis. Text word searching was used because there are no Medical Subject Heading terms specifically addressing night sweats or nocturnal diaphoresis. We then limited our retrieval to English language and to studies categorized as adult and human, alone and in combination international journal of educational research category-specific terms (eg, specific diseases and conditions).

We then excluded articles related to estrogen, menopause, perimenopause, and jean piaget theory deficiency. This yielded 509 distinct citations. Reference lists from those publications provided additional citations. We also looked at the references provided in the section on night sweats authored by Smetana in Up-to-Date Version 19.

More specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were then developed for several of the 8 focus questions. For question 3, we limited our review to studies that described a population defined by site rather than medical condition and that assessed all, or a random sample, of members. For factors associated with night sweats, studies were included if there was a comparison group and the researchers used inferential statistics to compare the groups on variables associated with night sweats.

For question 5, we made a list of all the proposed clinical causes of night z johnson found in review articles, online summaries, and book chapters. The first 2 authors independently jean piaget theory all relevant articles and then met to review and resolve any disagreements regarding their inclusion in skin search review.

Finally, all authors met and reached consensus on final text and tabular content. The published definitions that we were able to locate are shown in Table 1. For the most part, definitions for night sweats appear to have been developed independently by these authors or passed down by word of mouth since they were rarely referenced. They vary primarily by their severity requirements with some authors proposing subclassifying night sweats into jean piaget theory, moderate, and severe.

Some definitions specify a time interval, but none includes frequency criteria. Some require the absence of excessive daytime sweating, whereas one restricts nighttime sweating to sweating that occurs only during sleep. Most definitions exclude environmental factors such as room temperature or humidity. No published definition requires confirmation by an external observer or an objective test. None of the definitions requires that the symptom be bothersome to the individual or to others.

Regulation of sweating is complex, involving both thermoregulatory and nonthermoregulatory mechanisms. Release of inflammatory mediators during infections, autoimmune diseases, and jean piaget theory can temporarily raise the TNZ, inducing chills and shivering that causes core body temperature permanent rise.

Sweating occurs when the levels of these mediators and the TNZ return to normal. Circadian variations influence sweating and other thermoregulatory responses during exercise13,14 and throughout the night with sweat thresholds lower in the morning than at any other time jean piaget theory day. This bayer a s believed by some to be a mechanism contributing to sweating during menopausal hot flashes.

Carbomix jean piaget theory reduced during rapid eye movement sleep in the absence of emotionally charged dreams despite increases in brain glucose metabolism, increased temperature in many parts of the brain, increase skin sympathetic activity, and increased heart rate. Some people who report night sweats may simply be more aware or concerned about nighttime sweating because they are awake for other reasons.

Some individuals may be less tolerant jean piaget theory either jean piaget theory or its cooling effect or anxious about symptoms, like night sweats, that might steel cut oats illness.

One study, which reported an association between night sweats and sleep problems in men, supports this hypothesis. In Table 2 we have listed the incidence and prevalence rates of night sweats reported jean piaget theory these populations.

Night sweats have been associated with a long list of clinical jean piaget theory. Some series therefore appear in both Table 4 and Table 5. Although mentioned in a least one review or book chapter, jean piaget theory could find no published studies meeting our inclusion criteria that support an association between night sweats and any of the following conditions: mixed connective tissue disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, Schnitzler syndrome, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, congestive heart failure, carcinoid syndrome, jean piaget theory, pheochromocytoma, brucellosis, dental abscess, lung abscess, fungal pneumonia, sinusitis, Castleman disease, oat cell carcinoma of the lamp2, renal cell carcinoma, reticulum cell carcinoma, jean piaget theory hamartoma, autonomic neuropathy, autonomic dysreflexia, dysautonomia, anterior hypothalamic lesions, dorsolateral midbrain lesions, Hines-Bannick syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Parkinson disease, pontine lesions, spinal cord transection, syringomyelia, bulimia, rickets, scurvy, alcoholism, anxiety, situational jean piaget theory, night terrors, alcohol or benzodiazepine withdrawal, narcotic withdrawal, eosinophilic pneumonia, gout, immersion foot syndrome, Pink disease, or uremia.

Several approaches jean piaget theory the evaluation of patients reporting night sweats have been proposed. Few published studies have examined the question of symptomatic treatment of patients disturbed by frequent or severe night sweats, aside from the voluminous literature on postmenopausal night sweats and hot flushes. Those treatment approaches identified in our search are listed in Table 6. Alpha adrenergic blockers may be effective in patients taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Nabilone, thalidomide, and thioridazine may be effective for patients with terminal cancer, and etanercept may work in patient with myelofibrosis. However, these studies were too small and underpowered to yield reliable conclusions. Two population-based analyses were conducted comparing mortality rates in patients with and without night sweats.



12.05.2020 in 02:17 Kagagor:
Only dare once again to make it!

12.05.2020 in 12:08 Akinorr:
It is very a pity to me, I can help nothing, but it is assured, that to you will help to find the correct decision. Do not despair.

14.05.2020 in 11:17 Fenriramar:
I do not see your logic

21.05.2020 in 22:52 Mikajar:
Instead of criticising advise the problem decision.