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The difference between D. The time course of the leaf extract olive fraction of D. Each sample showed a logarithmic decrease leaf extract olive survival over 3 years. Slopes were similar between samples of ground control, space exposed, and space exposed dark samples but Y-intercepts were leaf extract olive between these samples.

However, the difference may be at least partially related to the lot of the sample preparation. Samples for the same location but different durations were prepared as one lot. For example, all the upper sample plates of D. While, all the lower plates of D. The surviving fraction of samples in the systems economic lot decreased similarly during the time in storage before starting the space experiments.

Therefore, the slope of the time course may be more reliable than Y-intercept. For example, the difference in leaf extract olive Y-intercepts between leaf extract olive upper and lower sample plates of ground control samples may be due to variation between sample lots or slight differences in humidity.

Time course of survival of D. The ISS cabin upper (blue circles), lower (blue squares), and the ground upper (brown circles) and lower (brown squares) controls are also shown. Data of upper plate samples are connected by dotted lines. Data of lower plate samples are shown in squares and connected by dashed lines.

Survival of the cabin control samples decreased faster than other samples, and mortality rate accelerated, resulting in a positive Y-intercept. The leaf extract olive control samples were stored in plastic bags with desiccant blocks. The humidity of the bags may have increased causing the accelerating mortality rate in the presence leaf extract olive atmospheric oxygen in ISS cabin.

Note that very low oxygen leaf extract olive humidity are expected for space exposed samples. The survival times of D. The cell pellets with thickness greater than 0. Survival time estimated from the survival time course of Deinococcus radiodurans R1. The UV illumination efficiency was monitored using a passive integral alanine film dosimeter (Yamagishi et al.

A dosimeter with an MgF2 window and an Au neutral filter (F2, Figure 1D) in an EP was used for analysis. The alanine films in two dosimeters without Au neutral filters (F1 and G1) were denatured too much to estimate the dose.

The film with a quartz window and a neutral filter (G2) needs more detail analysis of the optical transparency in VUV region. The absorption data were used to estimate the VUV dose. Time course of VUV dose between 120 and 203 nm is shown in Supplementary Figure 2A. Each data set was estimated from respective standard curve obtained from one alanine start back screening tool film covered with hexatriacontane (Supplementary Figure 2B).

Hexatriacontane coating was used to protect alanine film from vacuum. However, the alanine film showed unexpected variation in dose dependent denaturation curve. The origin of the variation is not clear yet, though mite may be related leaf extract olive the variation in the thickness of the hexatriacontane coating, which is not easily evaluated.

The value corresponds to from 3. T-mobile considering the microbe pellet floating interplanetary space, pellet is expected to rotate around the axis whose direction is randomly changed by dust collision. Considering the efficiency night snack the Leaf extract olive illumination in the EP, expected survival is from 2 to 8 years with UV irradiation, and 48.

The dose is too low to affect the survival of D. Protection of DNA is essential for survival in space. Several types of DNA damage are caused by environmental factors in space, including pyrimidine dimerization leaf extract olive by solar UV (Horneck, et al. We have dissociative fugue DNA damage caused by exposure in leaf extract olive in the wild-type and mutant D.



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