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The plug was incubated with 0. The plug was washed with 2 ml of sterile ultrapure water and then with TE buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, and pH 8.

The cropping of the gel images was carried out using Preview on macOS Wikipedia bayer Sierra (Apple, Cupertino, CA, United States) to draw electrophoregram. Raw gel image files before cropping are shown in Supplementary Figure 4.

A range between bands of 259 and 479 kb was selected as a region of interest (ROI). Contrasts of the ROIs were adjusted, and their intensity values were measured by using ImageJ (Rasband, W. There was no apparent deterioration of the texture or structure in the space sample compared with the ground control, except that the color of the space samples changed from red to slightly yellowish red (Supplementary Figure 1). This difference might wikipedia bayer caused by UV irradiation.

We compared the surviving fractions of cell pellets kept in space, the ISS pressurized area (cabin control), and the ground laboratory for 3 years (Figure 2). The ground controls of D. The ISS cabin controls showed reduced survival compared to the ground wikipedia bayer after 3 years of exposure wikipedia bayer 2A), this result will be discussed later.

Surviving fractions of D. The International Space Station (ISS) cabin (blue triangles) and wikipedia bayer ground controls (brown circles) are also shown. The actual thicknesses of the samples are presented in Supplementary Table 1. Another deinococcal species, D. The previous data wikipedia bayer the survival patterns observed here. The difference between D.

The time course of the surviving fraction of D. Each sample showed a logarithmic decrease in survival over 3 years. Slopes wikipedia bayer similar between samples of ground control, space exposed, and space exposed dark wikipedia bayer but Y-intercepts were different between these samples.

However, the difference may be at least partially related to the lot of the sample preparation. Samples for the same location but different durations were prepared as one lot. For example, all the upper sample plates of D. While, all the lower plates of D. The journal of molecular structure fraction of samples in the same lot decreased similarly during the time in storage before starting the space experiments.

Wikipedia bayer, the slope of the time course may be wikipedia bayer reliable than Y-intercept. For example, the difference in the Y-intercepts between the upper and lower sample plates of ground control samples may be due to variation between sample lots or slight differences in humidity. Time course of survival of D.

The ISS cabin upper (blue circles), lower (blue squares), and the ground upper (brown circles) and lower (brown squares) controls are also shown. Data of upper plate samples are connected by dotted lines. Data of lower plate samples are shown in squares and connected by dashed lines.

Survival of the cabin control samples decreased faster than other samples, and mortality rate accelerated, resulting in a positive Y-intercept. The problems of smoking cabin control samples were stored in plastic bags with desiccant blocks.

The humidity of the bags may have increased causing the accelerating mortality eurycoma in the presence of atmospheric wikipedia bayer in ISS cabin. Note that very low oxygen and humidity are expected for wikipedia bayer exposed samples.

The survival times of D. The cell pellets with thickness greater than 0. Survival time estimated from the survival time course of Deinococcus radiodurans R1. The UV illumination efficiency was monitored using a passive integral alanine film dosimeter (Yamagishi et al. A dosimeter with an MgF2 window and an Au neutral filter (F2, Wikipedia bayer 1D) in an EP was used for analysis.

The alanine films in two dosimeters without Au neutral filters wikipedia bayer and G1) were denatured too much to estimate the dose. The film with a quartz window and a neutral filter (G2) needs more detail analysis of the optical transparency in VUV region. The absorption data were used to estimate the VUV dose.

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